Pearls are called "children of light" or "sea stones". They are attributed to divine origin, magical power and healing effects. They are often perceived as a symbol of sadness and are said to bring tears. Pearl Jewelry will convince you to the contrary, no sadness or tears, just luxury beauty and purity.

The pearl is formed in a shell of shellfish, especially bivalves, and is made of the same material as their shells or shells, especially calcium carbonate. The formation of pearls occurs between the shell and the skin of the shell, which covers its organs. The mollusk begins to create a pearl, but on the basis of an impulse, which is the intrusion of a foreign object into its box, which is most often a grain of sand. The mollusc begins to wrap a foreign object with thin layers of pearl and thus the pearl formation begins.

The pearl consists mainly of calcium carbonate, and proteins are present. Thanks to this specific pearl composition, the pearl has a smooth and glossy finish. Pearls are most commonly white or cream colored, rarer are pink, gray or black pearls.

Pearls are divided into marine and freshwater depending on the location of the mule. In freshwater shellfish, smaller white pearls are produced, larger and colorful pearls are created by marine shellfish.

Did you know that the black pearl will only create one of the 15,000 shells?

By the end of the 19th century, the pearls were the most precious jewels in the world. Findings of pearls in shells were random and rather rare, pearl hunting was a very dangerous matter in which many divers perished.

At the beginning of the 20th century, pearls began to "artificially" produce. Japanese Kokichi Mikimoto founded the first farm for perlover farming in 1920 and attempted to grow artificial pearls (so called pearl nucleus). After the initial failures, he managed to bring his method to perfection and produce beautiful, large enough and round pearls. Kokichi Mikimoto is rightly called "King of pearls".

Nowadays, most of the pearl farms are sold.


Akoya pearls

Sea pearls

The most famous type of pearls, most often has a white color. 

Japan and China

Pearls of the South Pacific (pearls of the South Seas)

Sea pearls

Most commonly white, silver and gold

Australia, Indonesia and the Philippines

Tahitian pearls

Sea pearls

Colors from white to black

Islands around French Polynesia (the most famous Tahiti)

Freshwater pearls

Freshwater ponds and lakes

A wide range of colors, shapes and sizes

China, USA

Did you know that...?

The pearl is the jewel of the zodiac sign of the Cancer.

Pearl is the precious stone of June.

Perl Wedding is the 30th anniversary of the wedding.

Natural pearls are very rare especially nowadays. Historically, they were found mainly in the Persian Gulf region, nowadays most of the pearl harvests have been replaced by oil.

Cultivated pearls are artificially grown on pearl farms. We can find farms in both salt and fresh waters. A small bullet is placed in the mollusc of the shell and the shell start to product pearls. The formation of cultivated pearls lasts for 1.5 to 2 years.


Sea pearls are formed in seas and oceans. They are most often made of Pinotada margaritifera, which live in the tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific and grow up to 30 centimeters in size.

Did you know that Pinotada can create up to two pearls in its life? That's why sea pearls are more valuable and their price higher than freshwater pearls.

Types of pearls

Tahitian Pearls
Akoya Pearls
South Pacific Pearls
Freshwater pearls are created in rivers, ponds and lakes and they are most often made by Margaritifera margaritifera, which is also present in Czech Republic, but as a threatened species. 

Did you know that Margaritifera can create up to 20 pearls in it's life? That's why jewels with freshwater pearls are cheaper than jewels with sea pearls.


Pearls have long been called "children of light" or "sea stones". People were always fascinated by them and they are attributed to have a magic and healing power.

Pearls are said to contain tears. According to the ancient Persian legend, pearls are the tears of the gods, which fell to the earth where they were trapped in shelves of mollusks and made beautiful jewels. Chinese legends talk about the dragon, god of the rain, who flew over the sea, and water drops dropping of his open mouth turns into a pearls in the moonlight. The Indians believe that pearls are moon dew.

It is said that when the goddess of beauty and love Aphrodite came out of the waves, a droplet of water runned down from her body and turned into pearl in the moonlight.

Pearls have always been attributed to healing effects, Chinese doctors have used them for cure epilepsy, madness and alcohol addiction.

At the beginning of the 20th century, hunters hunted for shells for it's nacre, which was then used to make buttons. The pearls that appeared in some shells were a pleasant bonus - but their occurrence was very irregular and random. 

The richest site of sea pearls:

Gulf of Mannar (the sea between Ceylon and southern India)
Persian Gulf
Red Sea
South of Australia to the Pacific Islands

The richest site of freshwater pearls:

Mississippi Valley (America)

Artificial cultivation of pearls takes place from the beginning of the 20th century. The Japanese Kokichi Mikimoto founded the first farm for pearl farming in 1920 and attempted to grow artificial pearls here. After the initial failures, he managed to bring his method to perfection and produce beautiful, large enough and round pearls. Kokichi Mikimoto is rightly called "King of pearls".

How is cultivation going on?

The production of pearls takes place artificially on farms in both sea and fresh waters. A 6mm large ball, which comes from a shell of a freshwater shellfish, is inserted into the open-ended shell with a special pliers. Subsequently, the perineum seam shoots, tied to the rope and returned to the water. This rope remains hanging for about 1.5 years (pearl grows by one millimeter per year), regular checks and cleaning are carried out. The pearl will be formed in about half of the shells - other will refuse or perish and become food for fishes.

Shells can be used to "make" pearls several times, usually used three times. Afterwards, its contents are used in the kitchen or to produce buttons from the shell as a souvenir for tourists.

Methods of cultivation

The seed method

A small fragment of the freshwater bayonet is placed under the perlorvary pearl, which we will cover for one year with the pearls. Then, the wrapped parcel is removed and inserted into another perclone. This way we can get big pearls over the years.

Bead method

A bead is placed beneath a perl on the end, which is only a little smaller than the resulting pearl. The bead is carved from the freshwater bayonet box and the percolor is wrapped with a perlite in the layer just about 1 millimeter. This makes the "production" of pearls much faster.


Used sources:

The Pearl Book - The Definitive Buying Guide. (2008). 4th ed. Woodstock: GemStone Press, pp.Pages 38 - 62. (2016). Pearl Sizes. [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 Nov. 2016] (2016). Pearl Description. [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 Nov. 2016].American Gem Society. (2016). About Pearls. [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 Nov. 2016].